Associate Professor of Zoology
Ph. D. University of Minnesota
W. K. Kellogg Biological Station
Aquatic ecology; community ecology; phytoplankton ecology, physiology and evolution; global change and harmful algal blooms
I am interested in how the interplay of biotic and abiotic factors structures phytoplankton communities in both freshwater and marine environments. Currently our lab focuses on the following questions:
Effects of Temporal and Spatial Heterogeneity on Phytoplankton Communities
We have been looking at how fluctuating resources such as light and nutrients affect competition and coexistence in phytoplankton. We are also interested in identifying and testing the mechanisms leading to heterogeneous vertical distributions of phytoplankton, such as subsurface chlorophyll maxima.
Ecological Traits, Trade-offs and Community Structure
We seek to understand how ecological traits and trade-offs determine plankton community structure under different environmental conditions. Using laboratory experiments and data analysis, we characterize growth and resource utilization traits, trade-offs and ecological strategies of major phytoplankton functional groups from both freshwater and marine environments. We then use mechanistic models, including adaptive dynamics techniques, to explain and predict the occurrence and dominance of these phytoplankton groups, the evolution of observed trait distributions and trade-offs between key functional traits. We also test model predictions in laboratory experiments with phytoplankton communities.
Broad Patterns in Plankton Diversity and Trait Distributions
We are interested in latitudinal and other large-scale patterns of phytoplankton diversity and distributions of key functional traits, such as cell size, resource utilization traits and thermal tolerances in marine and freshwater phytoplankton.
Global Change and Harmful Algal Blooms
I have a keen interest in how different aspects of the human-induced global change will impact aquatic ecosystems, phytoplankton communities in particular. Using experiments, field observations and models we investigate how diverse global change stressors, such as increasing temperature and nutrient loading, may alter phytoplankton community structure and dynamics, e.g., increasing the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We also collaborate with engineers in developing robotic fish capable of autonomous monitoring of HABs.
We investigate the ecology of invasive, potentially toxic cyanobacteria, spreading into temperate latitudes from the tropics. We focus on determining the traits that make these cyanobacteria invasive and on community and ecosystem consequences of microbial invasions.
Nitrogen-fixers in phytoplankton communities
Because N-fixers are important players in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, we need to understand what governs their distributions and dynamics. We use experiments, continental-scale data analyses and models to understand how absolute and relative levels of nutrients, light, temperature and other variables determine the abundance of N-fixers in phytoplankton communities and their interactions with the rest of phytoplankton.
Lake Baikal in Siberia is the oldest and the most voluminous lake in the world, with an incredible diversity of endemic species. In collaboration with S. Hampton, M. Moore, L. Izmestyeva and E. Silow, we explore planktonic food web structure and dynamics, with an emphasis on interactions between endemic and cosmopolitan species and their responses to changing climate.
Litchman, E. Invisible invaders: non-pathogenic invasive microbes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters, in press.
Litchman, E., P. de Tezanos Pinto, C.A. Klausmeier, M.K. Thomas and K. Yoshiyama. 2010. Linking traits to species diversity and community structure in phytoplankton. Hydrobiologia 653: 15-38.
De Tezanos Pinto, P. and E. Litchman. 2010. Interactive effects of N:P ratios and light on nitrogen-fixer abundance. Oikos 119: 567-575.
Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier and K. Yoshiyama. 2009. Contrasting size evolution in marine and freshwater diatoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 106: 2665-2670.
MacKay, M.D., P.J. Neale, C.D. Arp, L.N. De Senerpont Domis, X. Fang, G. Gal, K.D. Jöhnk, G. Kirillin, J.D. Lenters, E. Litchman, S. MacIntyre, P. Marsh, J. Melack, W.M. Mooij, F. Peeters, A. Quesada, S.G. Schladow, M. Schmid, C. Spence and S.L. Stokes. 2009. Modeling lakes and reservoirs in the climate system. Limnology and Oceanography 54: 2315-2329.
Litchman, E. and C.A. Klausmeier. 2008. Trait-based community ecology of phytoplankton. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 39: 615-639.
Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier, O.M. Schofield and P.G. Falkowski. 2007. The role of functional traits and trade-offs in structuring phytoplankton communities: scaling from cellular to ecosystem level. Ecology Letters 10: 1170-1181.
Litchman, E. Resource competition and the ecological success of phytoplankton. 2007. In: P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll (Eds) Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea . Elsevier. pp. 351-375.
Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier, J.R. Miller, O.M. Schofield and P.G. Falkowski. 2006. Multi-nutrient, multi-group model of present and future oceanic phytoplankton communities. Biogeosciences 3: 585-606.
Kay, A.D., I.W. Ashton, E. Gorokhova, A.J. Kerkhoff, A. Liess and E. Litchman. 2005. Toward a stoichiometric framework for evolutionary biology. Oikos 109: 6-17.
Klausmeier, C.A., E. Litchman, T. Daufresne and S.A. Levin. 2004. Optimal N:P stoichiometry of phytoplankton. Nature 429: 171-174.
Litchman, E., C.A. Klausmeier and P. Bossard. 2004. Phytoplankton nutrient competition under dynamic light regimes. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 1457-1462.
Klausmeier, C.A., E. Litchman and S.A. Levin. 2004. Phytoplankton growth and stoichiometry under multiple nutrient limitation. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 1463-1470.
Litchman, E. 2003. Competition and coexistence of phytoplankton under fluctuating light: experiments with two cyanobacteria. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 31: 241-248.
Litchman, E., D. Steiner and P. Bossard. 2003. Photosynthetic and growth responses of three freshwater algae to phosphorus limitation and daylength. Freshwater Biology 48: 2141-2148.
Litchman, E., P.J. Neale and A.T. Banaszak. 2002. Increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation in nitrogen-limited dinoflagellates: photoprotection and repair. Limnology and Oceanography 47: 86-94.
Klausmeier, C.A. and E. Litchman. 2001. Algal games: the vertical distribution of phytoplankton in poorly mixed water columns. Limnology and Oceanography 46: 1998-2007.
Litchman, E. and C.A. Klausmeier. 2001. Competition of phytoplankton under fluctuating light. American Naturalist 157: 170-187.
Litchman, E. 1998. Population and community responses of phytoplankton to fluctuating light. Oecologia 117: 247-257.
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